Impact of Our Warriors

Virabhadrasana 1 (Warrior 1)

Practising this asana brings a whole host of benefits: It strengthens your spine & back muscles and relieves backache, lumbago and sciatica. Tones the abdominal muscles. Relieves acidity and improves digestion. Strengthens the bladder and corrects a displaces uterus. Relieves pain and heavy flow during menstruation.

Skeletal joint actions
Spine Upper limbs Lower limbs
    Front leg Back leg
Extension, slight rotation for chest to face forward, pelvis level

 

Scapular abduction and upward rotation, shoulder abduction and external rotation, slight elbow flexion, forearm supination SI joint nutation, hip flexion, knee flexion, ankle dorsiflexion

 

SI joint counternutation, hip extension and adduction, knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion and foot supination at heel and pronation at forefoot

 

Muscular joint actions
Spine
Concentric contraction Eccentric contraction
To extend spine:

Spinal extensors

To rotate chest forward:

Internal oblique (front leg side); external oblique (back leg side)

To prevent hyperextension at lumbar spine:

Psoas minor, abdominal muscles

To support weight of head as neck extends:

Rectus capitis, longus capitis and colli, verticalis, scalenes

Upper limbs
Concentric contraction
To abduct and upwardly rotate scapula:

Serratus anterior

To supinate forearm:

Supinator

To stabilize and abduct shoulder joint:

Rotator cuff, biceps brachii (long head), middle deltoid

Lower limbs
Front leg Back leg
Concentric contraction Eccentric contraction Concentric contraction Eccentric contraction
To resist tendency to widen knee (abduct at hip):

Gracilis, adductor longus and brevis

 

To allow hip and knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion without collapsing into gravity:

Gluteus maximus, hamstrings at hip joint, vastii, soleus, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of foot

To level and center pelvis over feet and to maintain balance side to side (the narrower the stance, the more active and long these muscles need to be):

Gluteus medius and minimus; piriformis, superior and inferior gemellus

To extend hip:

Hamstrings at hip joint, gluteus medius (posterior fibers), adductor magnus, gluteus maximus

To extend knee:

Articularis genu, vastii

To maintain arches of foot without inhibiting dorsiflexion of ankle:

Intrinsic muscles of

foot

 

To allow outer ankle to lengthen without collapsing inner knee or inner

foot:

Peroneals

 

 

Virabhadrasana 2 (Warrior 2)

This pose exercise your limbs and torso vigorously, reducing stiffness in your neck and shoulders. It improves your breathing capacity by expanding the chest. Alleviates the condition of a slipped disc, reduces fats around the hips and relieves lower backache. This pose also makes your knee and hip joints more flexible.

Skeletal joint actions
Spine Upper limbs Lower limbs
  Front leg Back leg
Neutral spine, slight rotation for chest to orient to side, head rotated to face front leg, pelvis level Scapular abduction, shoulder abduction and external rotation, forearm pronation

 

SI joint nutation, hip flexion and abduction, knee flexion, ankle dorsiflexion

 

SI joint counternutation, hip extension and abduction, knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion, foot supination at heel and pronation at forefoot

 

Muscular joint actions
Spine
Alternating concentric and eccentric contractions Concentric contraction Concentric contraction
To maintain neutral alignment of spine:

Spinal extensors and flexors

To rotate chest to side:

External oblique (front leg side); internal oblique (back leg side)

To rotate head toward front leg:

Rectus capitis posterior, obliquus capitis inferior, longus capitis and colli, splenius capitis

(front leg side); sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius (back leg side)

Upper limbs
Concentric contraction Passively lengthening
To abduct scapula:

Serratus anterior

To stabilize and abduct shoulder joint:

Rotator cuff, biceps brachii (long head), deltoid

To pronate forearm:

Pronator quadratus and teres

Pectoralis major and minor (particularly

in back arm)

 

Lower limbs
Front leg Back leg
Concentric contraction

 

Eccentric contraction

 

Concentric contraction

 

Eccentric contraction

 

To abduct hip:

Gluteus medius and minimus

 

To abduct hip and allow hip flexion without collapsing into gravity:

Gluteus maximus, piriformis, obturator externus, superior and inferior gemellus

To allow hip and knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion without collapsing into gravity:

Hamstrings at hip joint, vastii, soleus, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of foot

 

To extend and abduct hip:

Gluteus medius and minimus, hamstrings at hip joint, piriformis, obturator externus, superior and inferior gemellus

To extend knee:

Articularis genu, vastii

To maintain arches of foot without inhibiting dorsiflexion of ankle:

Intrinsic muscles of foot

To support inner knee:

Gracilis

To allow outer ankle to lengthen without collapsing inner knee or inner foot:

Peroneals

 

 

 

Virabhadrasana 3 (Warrior 3)

One of the favourite poses to improve balance and focus. Teaches body awareness and proprioception as you learn to adjustment your body. Additionally, this asana strengthens the legs, arms, back and core muscles.

 

Skeletal joint actions
Spine Upper limbs Lower limbs
Standing leg Lifted leg
Neutral spine or axial extension

 

Scapular upward rotation, abduction, and elevation; shoulder abduction; elbow extension

 

SI joint nutation, hip flexion and adduction, knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion

 

SI joint counternutation, neutral hip extension and rotation, knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion

 

Muscular joint actions
Spine
Concentric contraction
To maintain alignment of spine:

Intertransversarii, interspinalis, transversospinalis, erector spinae

To prevent anterior tilt of pelvis and overextension of lumbar spine:

Psoas minor, abdominal muscles

Upper limbs
Concentric contraction
To upwardly rotate, abduct, and elevate scapula:

Upper trapezius, serratus anterior

To stabilize and flex shoulder joint:

Rotator cuff, coracobrachialis, pectoralis major and minor, middle deltoid, biceps brachii

(short head)

 

To extend elbow:

Anconeus, triceps brachii

 

Lower limbs
Standing leg Lifted leg
Concentric contraction Eccentric contraction Concentric contraction
To keep knee in neutral extension and balance on single leg:

Articularis genu, quadriceps, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of foot and lower leg

 

To control hip flexion:

Hamstrings

To allow lateral shift of pelvis over standing foot

for balance and to keep

pelvis level:

Gluteus medius and minimus, piriformis, superior and inferior gemellus

 

To maintain neutral hip extension and rotation:

Hamstrings, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus

 

 

 

Reference:

Yoga Anatomy-2nd Edition-Human Kinetics (2011) by Leslie Kaminoff, Amy Matthews

The Path to Holistic Health by BKS Iyengar Yoga